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  4. Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics Multilateralism: Past, Present, and Future

The policy implication of this line of argumentation is that governments should assign priority to high-tech industries and promote public investment in the related infrastructure. In contrast, an increasing gap has been emerging between the changing problems of the world economy on the one hand and the policy agenda and the ability to govern of world institutions of the other.

The need for stronger governance has been heightened by the emergence of supranational problems which have brought to the fore the limitations of national states in dealing with the new challenges. The single European currency, the euro, implies deep changes in the pattern of economic integration in Europe, as well as in the world financial system. These changes will have important consequences on developing countries as well.

Corruption and Globalization

In Europe, the move to a single currency will pose new policy challenges both at the national level and at the European level. Countries with an economic structure different from the European core structure face a risk of asymmetric shocks. To countervail these, they need efficient fiscal stabilizers and highly flexible labour markets.

Over the last several years, the donor community has increasingly focused its efforts on poverty eradication. Meanwhile, income inequality appears to have been rising in many developed, developing and transitional countries. Economic theory explains only poorly the rise in inequality over the last 20 years or so and the relation of this rise to poverty alleviation. Thus, it is quite possible that poverty reduction - and growth itself - may be compromised if inadequate attention is paid to the policy objective of the maintenance of income inequality within an acceptable range. Much of the discussion about privatization in the former socialist economies has focused on the divesture of state-owned enterprises SOEs.

While this approach has been inspired by the belief that privatization will solve all production and incentive problems, its benefits are now being reassessed more critically. Much less attention has been paid to the conditions necessary for the development of the NPS and on its role as 'the engine of the transition'. Yet, successful performance during the transition appears to be increasingly dependent on the expansion of this new sector.

The development prospects in SSA are particularly problematic in those countries which adopted Soviet style planning in the s, i. The policies of these countries emphasized state intervention in agriculture, capital-intensive industrialization, and macroeconomic management. These countries also experienced extreme levels of political violence and destruction as a result of either internal tensions or the politics of the Cold War.

Economic progress in this group of countries thus faces distinct problems. The evidence reviewed in the literature suggests that a rich endowment of natural resources hampers export diversification, the development of human capital and the protection of the environment. However, there is no a priori reason why the advantage constituted by a plentiful supply of natural resources must necessarily become an economic curse.

An Experiment in International Governance

Institutions, such as firms, families, contracts, rules, regulations, values, and social norms, are fundamental for economic development. They influence both the level and the pace of economic growth, which can and frequently does trigger institutional change. Institutions can neither be ignored, nor taken as a given, as in standard modern economics, which emphasizes rational economic behaviour and the rational economic man REM.

This REM approach, however, leaves much unexplained in terms of economic performance and individual behaviours. Financing and targeting public spending for poverty reduction require mobilisation of considerable revenues and reliable forecasts. While microsimulation modelling techniques have been important tools for analysing and devising tax and transfer policy reforms in most industrialised countries, this has not been the case for Africa.

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Click here to visit us on YouTube. Abstract The conference aims at bringing together Nordic and international scholars for the exchange of ideas and discussion of recent results within theoretical and applied development economics research. Team Assistant: Kati Hirvonen See publications. Abstract Human capital has been identified not only as a key determinant of growth and poverty alleviation, but as critical for human development. Abstract Many low- and middle-income countries are achieving good rates of economic growth, but high inequality remains a priority concern.

Abstract Despite decades of research and advances in data and methods, measuring poverty and reconciling this with patterns of economic growth remains a complex and contentious issue. Abstract This project will implement a survey of 2, small and medium-sized non-state enterprises operating in the manufacturing sector of ten provinces Vietnam. Abstract This project investigates issues concerning a evolution of land inequality and the role of policies concerning land rights, and b accountability of local governments in developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

Abstract Learning to Compete seeks to answer a seemingly simple but puzzling question: why is there so little industry in Africa? Abstract Food price volatility is one of the major challenges facing the global agricultural system today. Abstract The new knowledge generated by research must be shared if it is to be of use. Abstract Since the late s there has been shift in the way foreign aid is intended to be distributed to the social sectors, moving from traditional forms of project aid towards more comprehensive instruments of development assistance, including public-private partnerships, and international financing mechanisms.

Abstract Since the late s, governance has become a major concern for both donors and aid recipient countries. Abstract Specifically, this project will uncover whether vertically divided authority reduces the delivery of basic urban services through reductions in intergovernmental transfers and highlight what donor modalities are most useful for ensuring that foreign aid intended to fund urban services does so in situations of vertically divided authority.

Abstract In recent years, field experiments using randomized trials have gained increasing popularity in the field of development economics. Abstract Women suffer economic, social, and political discrimination. Abstract Sustaining development in developing countries has never been as complicated a task as it is today in the face of a world characterized by tremendous competition over resources that are becoming scarcer.

Abstract This project investigates issues concerning poverty and vulnerability in developing countries building on behavioural economics. Abstract This project acts as an instrument for UNU-WIDER to conduct small-scale projects or studies on topics of immediate policy importance that deserve a swift and critical response; to experiment with the application of new analytical techniques to development issues, and to build new research ideas that may then constitute the basis of larger projects in the main programme.

Abstract Climate change is likely to remain a serious issue for decades to come if not indefinitely. Abstract Existing research on Africa has produced a seemingly endless list of reasons why African growth and poverty reduction record has lagged behind that of other regions of the developing world. Abstract The aim of this project is to take stock of the often overlooked options now available to researchers at the frontiers of poverty analysis and to illustrate their use in developing country contexts.

Abstract In the number of urban inhabitants will surpass rural dwellers as a percentage of the total world population. Abstract Entrepreneurship can play an important role in structural economic change and in improving wellbeing. Abstract Their influence of elites in politics, government, business, and the media profoundly influences the direction of economic and social activities.

Abstract The fall of the Berlin Wall in November was a defining moment in the transition of former socialist countries into market economies. Abstract Recent decades have seen a surge in South-South economic, social and political linkages. Abstract In the development literature, some countries are cited more often than others as examples of development success.

Abstract In recent years there is a growing concern within the international donor community regarding the plight of a special group of countries labeled as 'Fragile States'. Abstract The purpose of this project was to investigate issues related to health inequality. Abstract Aid is one of the most challenging development issues facing the international community.

Abstract About participants attended the conference, more than of them coming from outside Finland. See publications. Abstract The project aims to assemble data about the distribution and composition of personal assets in developing, transition, and developed countries and to study the implications of personal asset-holding for economic development. Abstract International development in the era of globalization needs an effective transfer of knowledge and human capital from the main centres of knowledge creation to developing countries for supporting their growth and development process.

Abstract Achievement of the MDG goals by is an ambitious undertaking. Abstract Development aid has become an increasingly hot topic in international research and policy circles, especially following the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals. Abstract The mobilization of domestic savings for private investment plays a crucial role in achieving growth and poverty reduction; this is demonstrated by the historical experience of the now developed countries as well as East Asia.

Abstract Millions of people remain desperately food insecure, and over a decade of agricultural-sector reform appears to have achieved little in the way of improving entitlement to food in many countries. Abstract See publications for work connected to this project.

Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics Multilateralism: Past, Present, and Future

Abstract Creating better institutions for development has come to the fore in recent years, reflecting the often poor results of economic reform programmes that failed to take account of the need to develop appropriate supporting institutions. Abstract Globalization offers new opportunities for accelerating development and poverty reduction.

Abstract Reconstruction from conflict is a complex and demanding task, and a major challenge for the UN system as well as the wider donor community. Project duration: 3 years.

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  • Abstract The scale and causes of international income inequality and poverty continue to be much debated. Abstract Many developing and transition countries have considerable regional variation in average household income, poverty, and health and educational status. Abstract The real value of official aid flows fell for much of the s, and private capital flows to low-income countries remain mostly limited.

    Abstract When the Uruguay Round was being negotiated and it was coming to a close, a number of estimates were made about the impact of the agreement on poor countries. Abstract Summary measures of human well-being are increasingly used to compare and monitor performance within and across countries. Abstract Members of the CFA-zone enjoy currency convertibility, fiscal and monetary policies which are more prudent than SSA as a whole, and a large amount of financial and technical assistance. Atkinson See publications.

    Abstract Fleeing poverty, violence and 'ethnic cleansing' millions of people leave their homes every year in search of safety and economic opportunities. Abstract Households in developing countries face many risks. Abstract Micro-simulation models play an important role in policy analysis in developed economies, particularly in connection with the distributional impact of tax and benefit reforms.

    Abstract Latin America has now privatised a large number of utilities water, electricity, transport, and telecommunications and now makes more use of market approaches to delivery in the social sectors education and health.